Meeting Summary

The Future of Russian-US Strategic Arms Reductions: START III and Beyond

A Meeting Jointly Sponsored by the Center for Arms Control, Energy, and Environmental Studies, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and the MIT Security Studies Program

The Royal Sonesta Hotel
Cambridge, Massachusetts
February 2 - 6, 1998

Published in June, 1998

About | Contents | Meeting Schedule | Participants | Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3| Day 4-5

Welcome to visit the Center's START Web site (events, publications and discussions on START II Treaty related issues) - this information section is updated weekly

Conference Participants

Bruce Blair, Senior Fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program at the Brookings Institution
Rafael Bonoan, Graduate Student, Department of Political Science at MIT
Oleg Bukharin, Research Staff Member, the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies of Princeton University
David T. Burbach, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Political Science at MIT
Anatoli S. Diakov, Director, the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the MPTI
Bob Dietz, Private Consultant
Harold Feiveson, Senior Research Scholar, the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies of Princeton University
Steve Fetter, Associate Professor, School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland
Geoffrey Forden, Strategic Weapons Analyst, the National Security Division of the Congressional Budget Office
Andrea Gabbitas, Student, Securtity Studies Program at MIT
James E. Goodby, Distinguished Service Professor, Carnegie Mellon University
Lisbeth Gronlund, Senior Staff Scientist, the Union of Concerned Scientists
Joshua Handler, Ph.D. Candidate, Woodrow Wilson School for Public and International Affairs of Princeton University
He Yingbo, Visiting Scholar, Securtity Studies Program at MIT
William E. Hoehn, III, Program Officer for the Secure World Program of the W. Alton Jones Foundation
Timur Kadyshev, Research Associate, the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the MPTI
Lieutenant Colonel Allen Kirkman, Jr., Military Fellow with the Securtity Studies Program at MIT
Major General Roland Lajoie, recently - Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense
George Lewis, Assistant Director, Securtity Studies Program at MIT
Eugene Miasnikov, Research Associate, the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the MPTI
Marvin M. Miller, Research Affiliate at the Center for International Studies at MIT
David Mosher, Strategic Weapons Analyst, the National Security Division of the Congressional Budget Office
Olya Oliker, Doctoral Student, the Department of Political Science at MIT
Rear Admiral Aleksei M. Ovcharenko, Deputy Head of the Operational Division, the Main Naval Staff, Russian Navy
Paul Podvig, Research Associate, the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the MPTI
Theodore A. Postol, Professor of Science, Technology, and National Security Policy at MIT
M. V. Ramana, Visiting Scholar, Securtity Studies Program at MIT
Colonel (retired) Petr B. Romashkin, Military Consultant to the Office of the Russian State Duma
Harvey M. Sapolsky, Professor of Public Policy and Organization in the Department of Political Science, Director, Securtity Studies Program at MIT
Michael Stafford, the Deputy U.S. Negotiator for Nuclear Security and Dismantlement at the Department of State
Frank von Hippel, Professor of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University
Celeste A. Wallander, Associate Professor of Government and Faculty Associate at the Davis Center for Russian Studies and the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University
Rear Admiral Robert H. Wertheim, Consultant on National Security Related Programs and Issues
Christine Wing, a Program Officer at the Ford Foundation in New York
David Wright, Senior Staff Scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists
Colonel (retired) Valeri E. Yarynych, Assistant to a Member of the Russian State Duma
Jacob (J.B.) Zimmerman, Graduate Student, the Department of Political Science at MIT


Bruce Blair, a Senior Fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program, has worked with the Brookings Institution since 1987. He is an expert on defense topics: security policies of the U.S. and Former Soviet Union, defense conversion, and nuclear forces and command systems. While at Brookings he taught defense analysis as a visiting professor at Yale and Princeton Universities. Prior to coming to Brookings, Blair served in the Department of Defense and was a Project Director at the Office of Technology Assessment, United States Congress.

Blair has thoroughly examined and analyzed the nuclear command systems of the U.S. and former Soviet Union. He has frequently testified before Congress on this subject. Blair has also extensively studied the Russian military and military-industrial economy. He is a member of various professional groups devoted to analyzing the transformation of the former Soviet Unionís military economy.

Rafael Bonoan is a second-year graduate student in the political science department at MIT. His primary fields of interest are international relations, security studies, and U.S. foreign policy. Prior to coming to MIT, he was a Program Assistant in the International Affairs Program at the Ford Foundation. He has a Master's in International Affairs from Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs.

Dr. Oleg Bukharin received his Ph.D. in physics from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1992. He also received training in international security at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in Princeton University. Dr. Bukharin is presently a Research Staff Member at the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies of Princeton University. Dr. Bukharin studies problems involving nuclear power, nuclear proliferation, and arms control.

David T. Burbach is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Political Science at MIT, and is affiliated with the Security Studies Program. His dissertation examines decision-making for post-Cold War humanitarian intervention, focusing on the role of the media, public opinion, and advocacy groups. He has previously done work on other aspects of the domestic politics of foreign policy, such as connections between Presidential approval and decisions to use force. In addition, Mr. Burbach is interested in the strategic and technological aspects of national security, particularly with respect to nuclear weapons and arms control.

Mr. Burbach did his undergraduate work at Pomona College, receiving a B.A. in Government in 1990. He has been at MIT since 1992, where he has received fellowships from the National Science Foundation and MacArthur Foundation, as well as teaching and research appointments. Mr. Burbach has also worked for policy analysis organizations, most recently the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Vienna, Austria, and the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California.

Anatoli S. Diakov is Professor of Physics at the General Physics Department of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT). He did his undergraduate work in Laser Physics at the Lebedev Institute in Moscow. After receiving his Ph.D. (1975 ) Dr. Diakov joined the staff of the General Physics Department of the MIPT. His research areas are laser physics, non-linear spectroscopy, and elementary process in gases. In 1990, jointly with Professor Frank von Hippel, he established the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology to study developments in nuclear arms reduction. Dr. Diakov's current activities include work on the Russian policy for weapons grade plutonium disposition, transparency and irreversibility of nuclear arms reduction.

Bob Dietz held the position of Systems Engineer, Lockheed Missile Division, in Sunnyvale, California until his retirement in 1990. His responsibilities were mainly in the areas of penetration aids (Polaris), post-boost vehicle design (Poseidon, Trident), guidance, functional control, trajectory analysis, and performance analysis. From 1980 on, Dietz was responsible for advanced design studies involving FBM or the submarine as a launch platform. He participated in SDI-related studies Ė from synthesis of foreign missiles for vulnerability analysis to conceptual design of responsive missiles against SDI conceptual architecture. From the mid-80ís Dietz participated in foreign missile analysis and synthesis, as a contractor to various intelligence organizations. This included intercepted telemetry analysis; intercepted communications; overhead photography and the like. In the late 80ís Dietz became involved in arms control initiatives and how they would impact the U.S. FBM systems. At the same time, because of his activity with the intelligence community, he participated in their initiatives to influence arms control.

Dr. Harold Feiveson is Senior Research Scholar, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies and a member of the Center of International Studies, Princeton University. He is Editor of the international journal, Science and Global Security. Dr. Feiveson's principal research interests are in the fields of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy policy. He is a co principal investigator, with Prof. Frank von Hippel, of Princeton's research Program on Nuclear Policy Alternatives. Feiveson's recent publications relating to nuclear weapons policy analyze ways in which the nuclear arsenals of the US and the former Soviet Union could be dismantled and de-alerted in the aftermath of the Cold War and measures to strengthen the nuclear non-proliferation regime, including a universal ban on the production of weapons-useable material.

Steve Fetter is an associate professor in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland, where he teaches and writes about the technical aspects of security and environmental policy. Prof. Fetter is a member of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on International Security and Arms Control, a fellow of the American Physical Society, and has been a consultant to several U.S. government agencies. Previously he has been science fellow at Stanford University's Center for International Security and Arms Control; special assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy; Council on Foreign Relations fellow at the State Department; postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University's Center for Science and International Affairs; visiting scientist at MIT's Plasma Fusion Center; and the first arms-control fellow at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He received a Ph.D. in energy and resources from the University of California, Berkeley, and a S.B. in physics from MIT. Fetter's articles on policy-related issues have appeared in Science, Nature, Scientific American, International Security, Science and Global Security, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, and Arms Control Today. He has contributed chapters to a dozen edited volumes on arms control, is author of the book Toward a Comprehensive Test Ban, and co-author of the recent National Academy study, "The Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy."

Geoffrey Forden is a strategic weapons analyst in the National Security Division of the Congressional Budget Office. Before joining CBO in August 1997, he spent a year as a Science Fellow at Stanfordís Center for International Security and Arms Control. During the year at Stanford he performed the first unclassified, independent technical analysis of the Airborne Laser. Geoff is a physicist by training with degrees from Case Western Reserve University and Indiana University. After getting his Ph.D. in physics, he spent three years in Germany working for Englandís Rutherford Laboratory. Returning to the US, he first spent three years working at Fermi National Laboratory and then seven years as an Assistant Professor of Physics at the University of Arizona.

Andrea Gabbitas has an undergraduate degree in political science from the University of Chicago. A second year student in the SSP program specifically interested in nuclear weapons and European security, she is currently working on a project on European alliance structures.

James E. Goodby is Distinguished Service Professor, Carnegie Mellon University and Guest Scholar, The Brookings Institution. During his 40-year diplomatic career he was officer-in-charge for nuclear test ban negotiations; vice-chair, U.S. delegation, START I; chief U.S. negotiator for safe and secure dismantlement of nuclear weapons; head, U.S. delegation, conference on confidence- and security-building measures in Europe; member, State Department policy planning staff; ambassador to Finland; and political counselor, U.S. Mission to NATO. He is the author of Europe Undivided, a book concerning U.S.-Russian relations that will appear in February. He is the winner of the Heinz Award in Public Policy, the Commander's Cross of the Order of Merit of Germany, and the Presidential Distinguished Service Award.

Lisbeth Gronlund received her Ph.D. in theoretical condensed matter physics from Cornell University in 1989. She then spent two years as a post-doctoral fellow at MIT's Defense and Arms Control (now Security Studies) Program and two years as an SSRC-MacArthur Foundation Fellow in International Peace and Security at the University of Maryland. Since September 1992, she has worked as a senior staff scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists and as a research fellow at MIT's Security Studies Program. Her recent work has focused on ballistic missile defenses, particularly whether deployment of national and advanced theater defenses by the United States is compatible with deep reductions in nuclear weapons. She has also worked on international fissile material controls, transparency measures to facilitate deep cuts and a move away from nuclear deterrence, ballistic missile proliferation, and depressed-trajectory SLBMs.

Joshua Handler is a Ph.D. candidate at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School for Public and International Affairs.

He Yingbo received his BS from the Department of Mechanics, Beijing University, in 1986, and received his MS in 1989. After that, he worked at the Institute of Structural Mechanics, China Academy of Engineering Physics for eight years. During these years, he spent most of his efforts on research in the area of structural impact dynamics. He became interested in arms control issues at the end of 1995 and became a member of the Program for Verification Technology Studies at CAEP. He is now a visiting scholar at MITís Security Studies Program, where he works on missile defense and ABM treaty-related issues.

William E. Hoehn, III is the Program Officer for the Secure World Program of the W. Alton Jones Foundation, a $375 million philanthropic institution located in Charlottesville, Virginia. As Program Officer, he seeks out and evaluates policy related grant opportunities consistent with the Secure World Program's two main goals: reducing the possibility of nuclear war, and preventing massive releases of radioactivity into the environment. His particular region of interest is that of the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union. Prior to joining the Foundation in 1994, Bill was Policy Research Associate at Business Executives for National Security (BENS) in Washington, DC. He received his M.A. in Security Policy Studies from George Washington University in 1994, and his B.S. in Commerce from Washington and Lee University in 1991.

Timur Kadyshev received his Ph.D. in mathematical modeling from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) in 1991. He then became a research associate at the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT, working on mathematical and computer modeling of military force balances. In 1992-93, Dr. Kadyshev spent nine months at M.I.T.'s DACS (now Security Studies) Program, funded by grants from the International Research and Exchanges Board, the Ploughshares Fund, and the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). During this visit he worked with Dr. David Wright of UCS and DACS on a project to assess the North Korean ballistic missile program. Upon returning to Russia in August 1993, Dr. Kadyshev became a Senior Researcher at the Center for Program Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1995 he became a researcher at the Center for Arms Control Studies at MIPT. His current interests include arms control and security issues raised by ballistic missile proliferation; history, development and use of Strategic Aviation; as well as general questions of strategic stability and arms reductions. Dr. Kadyshev's recent publications include "An Analysis of the North Korean Nodong Missile" (with David Wright), Science and Global Security, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1994.

Lieutenant Colonel Allen Kirkman, Jr. is currently a military fellow with MITís Security Studies Program. He was recently Executive Officer at the Joint Chiefs of Staff for the Deputy Director for Operations, Current Readiness and Capabilities at the Pentagon, Washington, DC. Previously, he was an Operations Officer in both the Nuclear Operations and the Current Readiness and Capabilities Division of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He has a wide background in space and missile systems. Lt. Col. Kirkman holds an undergraduate degree in Biology/Chemistry and graduate degrees in Human Resources Management and National Security and Strategic Studies. He is a graduate of Squadron Officer School, the Marine Corps Command and Staff College, Air Command and Staff College, Naval Command and Staff College, Joint Professional Military Education, Phase II from the Armed Forces Staff College, and Air War College.

Major General Roland Lajoie, US Army (Ret) left U.S. government Service on Feb 1, 1998, after serving almost four years as Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Cooperative Threat Reduction. In this position he managed the Nunn-Lugar Program mandated by Congress in 1991 to assist the former Soviet Union to eliminate or reduce weapons of mass destruction. Prior to that, General Lajoie had a 35-year military career during which he held a wide variety of important national security positions including Associate Deputy Director, Central Intelligence Agency; Deputy Director for International Negotiations, Joint Chiefs of Staff; first Director, U.S. On-Site Inspection Agency; U.S. Defense Attachť, American Embassy, Paris; U.S. Army Attache, American Embassy, Moscow; and Chief, U.S. Military Liaison Mission, Potsdam, Germany.

George Lewis is currently an associate director of the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He received his Ph.D. in experimental solid state physics from Cornell University in 1983, and was subsequently a research associate in Cornell's Department of Applied Physics. For the last ten years, his work has focused on technical analyses of arms control and international security issues, first at the Cornell Peace Studies Program and then at the Center for International Security and Arms Control at Stanford University. He has been at M.I.T since 1989. His research currently focuses on issues related to ballistic missile defenses and on the prospects for deep reductions in nuclear weapons.

Eugene Miasnikov is a Researcher at the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT). He received his Ph.D. in physics (oceanography) from MIPT in 1989. From 1989 to 1991 he worked as a Senior Research Associate at the Scientific Center "OPTEX" in Moscow. In 1991-1992 he spent ten months at the Defense and Arms Control Studies (now Security Studies) Program at MIT, working on the problems of submarine detection and submarine vulnerability. Dr. Miasnikov's publications include "Can Russian Strategic Submarines Survive at Sea? The Fundamental Limits of Passive Acoustics" (Science and Global Security, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1994), and "The Future of the Russian Strategic Forces: Discussion and Arguments" (published by the Center for Arms Control Studies at MIPT, 1995).

Marvin M. Miller recently retired from the position of Senior Research Scientist in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at MIT. He is now a Research Affiliate at the MIT Center for International Studies and the Department of Nuclear Engineering. After undergraduate work at the City College of New York, he received an MA in Physics from the University of Rochester and a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the Polytechnic Institute of New York. Prior to joining MIT in 1976, Dr. Miller was an associate professor of electrical engineering at Purdue University conducting research on laser theory and applications. At MIT his research has focused on arms control, particularly nuclear proliferation, and the environmental impact of energy use. In the proliferation area, his major interests are the Middle East and South Asia; he has also worked on such issues as international safeguards and export controls on sensitive nuclear technologies, the disposition of plutonium from retired nuclear weapons, and the proliferation implications of foreign nationals studying at U.S. universities. From 1984 to 1986, Dr. Miller was a Foster Fellow with the Nuclear Weapons and Control Bureau of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and he is currently a consultant on proliferation issues for ACDA and the Argonne National Laboratory.

David Mosher is a nuclear weapons analyst in the National Security Division of the Congressional Budget Office. He has written a number of papers and studies on a wide variety of issues including nuclear arms control treaties, national and theater ballistic missile defenses, strategic bombers, and ballistic missile submarines. His current project examines ways to enhance nuclear security between the United States and Russia through a broad range of measures, including force reductions, dealerting, safe and secure storage of nuclear warheads and fissile materials, warhead dismantlement, and fissile materials disposition. Before joining CBO, he worked on ocean physics and remote sensing at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. David received a masters degree in public affairs from Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School in 1990. He graduated from Grinnell College in 1985 with a degree in physics.

Olya Oliker is a doctoral student in Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Prior to coming to MIT, she was a Foreign Affairs Specialist at the US Department of Defense. She holds a B.A. from Emory University and an M.P.P. from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Rear Admiral Aleksei M. Ovcharenko is a deputy head of the Naval Operations Office of the Russian Navy. He graduated from the Pacific High Naval War College in Vladivostok in 1966. After graduating, he served from 1966-1981 as a navigator and commander of the strategic nuclear submarines of the North Fleet and of the Pacific Fleet. From 1981 until 1989 he served at the Main Operational Office of the General Staff. In 1989 he graduated from the Academy of the General Staff.

Paul Podvig is a Researcher at the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT). He graduated from the General and Applied Physics Department of MIPT in 1988 and began teaching physics in the MIPT General Physics Department. In 1991, when the Center for Arms Control Studies at MIPT was created, he started to work there as a researcher. In 1991, he was one of the organizers of the Third Summer School on Science and World Affairs, held in Moscow. In 1991-92, he organized the translation and Russian publication of Soviet Nuclear Weapons. In 1992 he spent ten months as a visiting research fellow with the Defense and Arms Control Studies (now Security Studies) Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology studying the capabilities of the Russian early warning satellites and since then has been a frequent visitor at the Security Studies program at MIT. Among his publications are "The Operational Status of the Russian Space-based Early Warning System" in Science and Global Security (1994), "Modern Ballistic Missile Defenses and the ABM Treaty" (in Russian, published by the Center for Arms Control Studies, 1995), and numerous articles in Russian newspapers on theater missile defenses and the ABM Treaty. In 1995-97 Paul Podvig was the principal investigator of the Russian Nuclear Weapons Project and was the editor of the book Russian Strategic Nuclear Weapons (Moscow, IzdAT, 1998).

Theodore A. Postol is Professor of Science, Technology, and National Security Policy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He did his undergraduate work in physics and his graduate work in Nuclear Engineering at MIT. Prior to taking his position at MIT he worked as a research physicist at the Argonne National Laboratory, an analyst studying the MX missile at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, at the Pentagon as an advisor on matters of military technology and policy to the Chief of Naval Operations, and as a Senior Research Associate at Stanford Universityís Center for International Security and Arms Control.

His scholarly work includes technical and policy analyses of strategic and tactical missile defenses, the potential effects of superfires from nuclear attacks near urban areas, the possible civilian casualties from nuclear counterforce attacks, nuclear weapons targeting practices, policy and technical questions associated with the possibility of a Nuclear Winter induced by fires following nuclear attacks, Accidental Launch Protection Systems, and Soviet tactical missile threats to NATO. Dr. Postol's recent work has been focused on the question of the Patriot anti-missile system's performance during the 1991 Gulf War and on the implications of Highly Advanced Theater Missile Defense Systems for the ABM Treaty.

M. V. Ramana is a physicist by training. Since September 1996, he has been working at the Security Studies Program, Center for International Studies Program, MIT, on issues related to nuclear weapons and energy in South Asia, especially India. More recently, he has been studying the technical characteristics of Indian missiles and their military capabilities.

Colonel (retired) Petr B. Romashkin is a military consultant to the Office of the Russian State Duma. After graduating from the Kharkov's High Air Force College in 1962, he served in the military units and the central staff of the Rocket Strategic Forces, and at the Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense, where he earned a Ph.D. in technical science. He has worked for the Russian Duma since 1994.

Harvey M. Sapolsky is Professor of Public Policy and Organization in the Department of Political Science and Director of the MIT Security Studies Program. Dr. Sapolsky completed a BA at Boston University and earned an MPA and Ph.D. at Harvard University. He has worked in a number of public policy areas, notably health, science, and defense and specializes in effects of institutional structures and bureaucratic politics on policy outcomes. In the defense field he has served as a consultant to the Commission on Government Procurement, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Naval War College, the Office of Naval Research, the RAND Corporation, Draper Laboratory, and Johns Hopkins' Applied Physics Laboratory, and has lectured at all of the service academies. He is currently focusing his research on three topics: interservice and civil/military relations; the impact of casualties on U.S. use of force; and the future structure of defense industries. Professor Sapolsky's most recent defense-related book is titled Science and the Navy, and is a study of military support of academic research.

Michael Stafford is the Deputy U.S. Negotiator for Nuclear Security and Dismantlement at the Department of State. In this role, he was Chief Negotiator of the U.S.-Russian Agreement on Plutonium Production Reactors, which was signed by Vice President Gore and Prime Minister Chernomyrdin on September 23, 1997. This agreement halts U.S. and Russian production of nuclear weapons-grade plutonium through the shutdown or conversion of all plutonium production reactors, and it establishes an extensive regime for monitoring the production reactors and nuclear weapons materials to ensure compliance with its terms. Mr. Stafford heads the U.S. component of the Joint Implementation and Compliance Commission that oversees implementation of the agreement.

In his current position, Mr. Stafford has also served as deputy head of U.S. delegations that negotiated a series of initiatives with Russia on the transparency and irreversibility of nuclear weapons reduction and that prepared a report to Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin on cooperative U.S.-Russian efforts to enhance the security of nuclear materials in Russia.

Mr. Stafford has been involved in U.S.-Russian arms control negotiations for fifteen years. He served as an advisor to the U.S. delegation to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (INF) Negotiations in Geneva, as a special assistant to AMB Paul Nitze in his role as the Reagan Administrationís senior arms control advisor, and as Executive Secretary to the U.S. delegation that concluded more than thirty agreements providing Nunn-Lugar dismantlement assistance to Russia, Ukraine, Kazakstan, and Belarus. He has also been a Senior Advisor at the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University and Executive Director of the Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard.

Frank von Hippel, a theoretical physicist, is a Professor of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and co-principal investigator with Harold Feiveson of Princeton's Program on Nuclear Policy Alternatives. From September 1993 through 1994, he was on leave as Assistant Director for National Security in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and played a major role in developing U.S.-Russian cooperative programs to increase the security of Russian nuclear-weapons materials. Prior to September 1993 and since January 1995, he has served as chairman of the research arm of the Federation of American Scientists (FAS), where he directs a non-governmental U.S.-Russian cooperative research project on the technical basis for new arms-control and nonproliferation initiatives. He also chairs the editorial board of "Science & Global Security;" and is a member of the editorial board of the "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists "and of the Board of Directors of the Arms Control Association.

Von Hippel received his B.S. degree in physics from MIT in 1959 and D.Phil. in theoretical physics in 1962 from Oxford, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. Since the early 1980's his research has focused on developing the analytical basis for: deep cuts in the U.S. and Soviet/Russian nuclear stockpiles and removal of their nuclear missiles off launch-on-warning alert, verified nuclear-warhead elimination, a universal cutoff of the production of unsafeguarded fissile materials and a comprehensive nuclear-warhead test ban.

Celeste A. Wallander is Associate Professor of Government and Faculty Associate at the Davis Center for Russian Studies and the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. She received her B.A. in political science from Northwestern University in 1983 (summa cum laude), and her Ph.D. in political science from Yale University in 1990. Since1997, she has directed the Program on New Approaches to Russian Security, funded by the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Her research and teaching interests include international relations theory, national and international security, and the foreign and security policies of the Soviet Union and the Soviet successor states. She has published articles on Soviet use of military force, the rise and fall of Soviet interventionism, Germany's trade policy toward Russia, and the role of international institutions in Russian military operations in the former Soviet Union. She is the author of Balancing Acts: Security, Institutions, and German-Russian Relations after the Cold War (Cornell, forthcoming) and editor of The Sources of Russian Foreign Policy after the Cold War (Westview, 1996).

Rear Admiral Robert H. Wertheim is a consultant on national security related programs and issues. During his 35 year career in the Navy, he was Director of Strategic Systems Projects, responsible for the research development, production and operational support of the Navyís submarine launched ballistic missile programs. After retirement, he served for seven years as the Lockheed Corporationís Senior Vice President-Science and Engineering, and for the past nine years has been a private consultant.

He chairs Los Alamos National Laboratoryís National Security Advisory Group and is a member of advisory groups serving the U.S. Strategic Command, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Draper Laboratory. Other service includes membership on the National Academy of Sciences Committee on International Security and Arms Control, the Joint DOD/DOE Advisory Committee on Nuclear Weapons Surety, the Secretary of Energy Laboratory Operations Board and the University of California Presidentís Council on the National Laboratories.

Wertheim is a 1945 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy and received a master of science degree in physics from MIT in 1954. He has been elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering, of Sigma Xi and Tau Beta Pi; an honorary member of the American Society of Naval Engineers; a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and a fellow of the California Council on Science and Technology. His contributions to national defense have been recognized with the Navyís Distinguished Service Medal (two awards), the Legion of Merit, the Gold Medal of the American Society of Naval Engineers, The Rear Admiral William S. Parsons Award of the Navy League of the United States, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs or Staff Distinguished Public Service Award, and the Secretary of Defense Medal for Outstanding Public Service.

Christine Wing is a Program Officer at the Ford Foundation in New York, where she oversees funding in peace and security issues. From 1984 to 1989 she served as coordinator of the National Disarmament Program of the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC); from 1979-1984 she was AFSCís National Coordinator for Economic Rights. She received her Ph.D. from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University, where she specialized in international security studies.

David Wright received his Ph.D. in theoretical condensed matter physics from Cornell University in 1983, and held physics research positions until 1988. He received an SSRC-MacArthur Fellowship in International Peace and Security to retrain in international security issues, and spent two years in the Center for Science and International Affairs in the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard. In the fall of 1990, he joined the staff of the Federation of American Scientists as a Senior Arms Control Analyst. Since January 1992, he has been a Senior Staff Scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists and is currently also a research fellow at the Security Studies Program at MIT. His current research interests include ballistic missile proliferation, especially understanding the North Korean missile program, and ballistic missile defenses. He has also written on international controls on fissile material and depressed trajectory SLBMs.

Colonel (retired) Valeri E. Yarynych is assistant to a Member of the Russian State Duma. After graduating from the Military Academy of Communication in 1959, he served 26 years in the USSR Strategic Rocket Forces. From 1986 until 1992 he served as a researcher at the Operations-Strategic Studies Center of the General Staff, where he earned his Ph.D. in military science.

Jacob (J.B.) Zimmerman attended Princeton University as an undergraduate. His thesis, on the Polaris Fleet Ballistic Missile System, led to an AB in Politics in 1991. After working in advertising for two years, he returned to graduate study in the Political Science department at MIT, where he is working towards a Ph.D. Concentrating in international relations and security studies, he has worked for the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory in Cambridge and as an intern at the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica.


For more information, please, contact Prof. Theodore Postol (617-253-8077, U.S.A.) or Prof. Anatoli Diakov (095-408-6381, Russia).